Arthuriana

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Lecture Notes by Linda A. Malcor


Lecture: Week 1

Introduction: The Historical King Arthur

I. Who am I? Why do I like Arthur?

II. Who are you? Why do you like Arthur?

III. Overview of Course. Pass out syllabus. Discuss.

IV. The Chronicles (Brengle 3-12, 325-348)

1. Gildas

2. Bede

3. Nennius

4. Annales Cambriae (Welsh Annals)

5. William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum

6. Giraldus Cambrenses (Gerald of Wales), De Principis Instructione

7. Ralph Higden, Polychronicon

8. Winston S. Churchill, The Birth of Britain (failure to locate Badon)

9. John J. Parry and Robert A. Caldwell, "Geoffrey of Monmouth's, Historia Regum Britanniae" (Intro. Merlin)

10. J.S.P. Tatlock, "Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historiography" (Mordred; noble laity as audience)

V. The Historical King Arthur

A. Lucius Artorius Castus (slides of Hadrian's Wall; Sarmatians stationed at mile forts; Ribchester)

1. Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson, "The Arthur of History"

2. John Jay Parry, "The Historical Arthur"

B. Maxminus, the usurper (Dream of Macsen and history)

C. The High King and the Continental Wars

1. The Legends

2. The letters of Bishop Sidonius, et al. (Riothamus)

VI. The Legends of Arthur

A. The Common Legend

1. Merlin (prose Merlin, B215-230; slide)

a. Prophecies

b. Prime-Mover of Arthurian Stories; Tree vs. cave as site of home/imprisonment (slide)

2. Uther and Igraine (Layamon, B128; Wyld B366-374 Geoffrey of Monmouth, B43-59; Malory, B233-240; slides) as Arthur's father and mother. Story of Duke Gorlois. Morgan and Morgawse as Arthur's half-sisters.

3. Ector (aka Antor) and Kay (Cei from Culhwch [B15-43]) as Arthur's foster father and brother

4. The Sword in the Stone ("Arthur and Merlin," B155-164, especially 156; Malory B240-243; prose Merlin B215-230, especially 222; slide), the Uniting Britain, Battles (through Badon) and the Continental Campaign (Malory B 243-252; 260-276; slide)

5. The Round Table (Layamon B133-136; Malory 256-257; slide)

6. Kin of Arthur: Gawain and the Orkney Clan (Wait till next week for details!) (Morgawse and the siring of Mordred) (Layamon B137- 139; prose Merlin, B230-233; Malory B 254-255)

7. The Coming of Lancelot and the breaking of Excalibur (Will get to his details in a few minutes.) (Malory B257-258; cf. Layamon, B129)

8. The Lady of the Lake (Details in Week 4) and the second Excalibur (Malory B252-253; slide); Lady does not appear in Britain before the arrival of Lancelot, to whom she is tied. Malory is the only author to connect the Lady with Arthur.

9. Guinevere (Details in Week 4) (Malory B255-256; slide--abduction on Modena archivolt): Abductions

10. Morgan (Details in Week 4) as the court "tester." (Malory B 257- 260)

11. The Quest for the Holy Grail (Wait till Week 5 for details!).

12. The Splitting of the Round Table (Stanzaic Morte, B193-215; Wells B390-391; Malory B 276-320)

a. Lancelot and Guinevere (Wait for details)

b. The Second Continental Campaign

c. Mordred usurps the throne

d. Camlann (Layamon B139-141)

i. Arthur

ii. Mordred (and the serpent)

iii. Constantine Cadorson (Arthur's heir--Mordred never had a claim; B141)

iv. Bedwyr (Sword thrown into the Lake; slide; cf. sword thrown into sea B213)

v. Queens take Arthur to Avalon (Once and Future King; slide)

vi. Lancelot (arrives too late).

B. The "Evil" Arthur (Welsh Saints' Legends--Extremely different portrait from the Continental Arthur and the Arthur of Malory).

C. The Welsh Arthur: Culhwch and Olwen (B15-43; Jones and Jones B351- 355)--Extremely different portrait from the Continental Arthur and the Arthur of Malory.

D. Summary: The story of a man who did everything right, and his world still fell apart--through absolutely no fault of his own.

VII. The Legends of Lancelot

A. Continental Origin; Popular throughout Europe; late appearance in British material.

B. Beginnings as a name on a list of Arthur's knights.

C. Chrétien's Conte de la Charrette (romance with Guinevere) vs. Ulrich von Zatzikhoven's Lanzelet (multiple wives; no romance); Romance literature vs. other tales.

D. The Standard Biography (Baugh B348-350)

1. Son of King Ban and Queen Elaine of Benwick

2. Stolen by Lady of the Lake on the night Ban dies (slide)

3. Raised at the Lake with his cousins, Bors and Lionel (slide).

4. Leaves Lake to join Round Table

5. Pre-eminent Knight of Arthur's Court.

6. Best-friend of Gawain (slide) and Galahaut

7. Finds true name on tombstone in cemetery, in the company of a woman, after having a conversation about graves with a hermit. (slides)

8. Trains other knights, among them Mordred.

9. Adultery with Guinevere

10. Hounded by Morgan Le Fey (Lancelot as Prisoner; slide)

11. Fights incognito in tournament against King of a Hundred Knights (on behalf of Bademagus in Malory).

12. Travels incognito.

13. Rescues Kay and other knights (Turquin, etc.; steals Kay's armor)

14. Wins Joyous Guard (picture; map)

15. Friend of Tristan (Wait till next week!; shelters Tristan and Isolde at Joyous Guard)

16. Quest for the Grail: The Best of all Worldly Knights (Wait till Week 5!)

17. The insane Lancelot (slide)

18. Abduction of Guinevere and the death of Gareth

19. War with Arthur and fight with Gawain (More details next week!)

20. Return to Britain, entrance into monastic life, and death (Body not recognized by half-brother, Ector de Marys).

E. Summary: The story of a man who was perfect except for the fact that he was human. In the end, he survives.

III. Similarities between Arthur and Lancelot

A. Shared Kingdom

B. Shared warband

C. Shared wife/antagonist (Morgan)

D. Shared sword/Lady of the Lake

IV. Conclusion: Arthur and Lancelot are reflections of the same heroic figure, but the legends of Arthur are skewed by the presence of the historical Riothamus.


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Lecture: Week 1 (Version 2)

Introduction: The Historical King Arthur

I. Who am I? Why do I like Arthur?

II. Who are you? Why do you like Arthur?

III. Overview of Course. Pass out syllabus. Discuss.

IV. The Middle Ages: An Overview

A. Late Antiquity--100-500 C.E. (The Time of the Historical King Arthur)

B. The Middle Ages--500-1500 C.E. (Most of the Arthurian Legends were written in the 12th-13th centuries. Eleanore of Aquitaine was the chief patron.)

C. Feudalism

1. Nobles

2. Clergy

3. Peasants

V. The Sources for the Medieval Tradition:

A. Manuscripts: Texts and Illuminations

B. Art

1. Sculpture (slide), Tapestry, Frescoes (slide), Paintings, Personal Items (slide), Stained Glass, Mosaics, Metal Work, Woodcuts, Etc.

2. Scenes of legends vs. "Relics" from Legends (Graves of Arthur and Guinevere at Glastonbury [slides], Winchester Round Table [slide], Grail; etc.)

C. Song (very few ballads of Arthur, mostly of Lancelot and Tristan, mostly Italian)

D. Archaeology (Cadbury and Glastonbury--Ashe; Camboglana--Goodrich; slides).

E. Ethnography/Historiography (Brengle 3-12, 325-348)

1. Gildas

2. Bede

3. Nennius

4. Annales Cambriae (Welsh Annals)

5. William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum

6. Giraldus Cambrenses (Gerald of Wales), De Principis Instructione

7. Ralph Higden, Polychronicon

8. Winston S. Churchill, The Birth of Britain (failure to locate Badon)

9. John J. Parry and Robert A. Caldwell, "Geoffrey of Monmouth's, Historia Regum Britanniae" (Intro. Merlin)

10. J.S.P. Tatlock, "Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historiography" (Mordred; noble laity as audience)

VI. The Historical King Arthur

A. Lucius Artorius Castus (slides of Hadrian's Wall; Sarmatians stationed at mile forts; Ribchester)

1. Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson, "The Arthur of History"

2. John Jay Parry, "The Historical Arthur"

B. Maxminus, the usurper (Dream of Macsen and history)

C. The High King and the Continental Wars

1. The Legends

2. The letters of Bishop Sidonius, et al. (Riothamus--Ashe)

VII. Assignments for Next Week. Urge to read text ASAP.


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Lecture: Week 2

The Knights of the Round Table

I. Kay

A. Foster brother of Arthur.

B. Trickster.

C. Welsh Cei

D. Arthur's Seneschal (becomes in charge of kitchens because of confusion with OF keu, "cook.")

II. Bedivere

A. Arthur's Cupbearer, then Butler

B. Welsh Bedwyr

C. He and Kay kill Giant of Mont St.-Michel

D. Becomes constable in later stories.

E. Takes over sword throwing scene from Giflet in Stanzaic Morte.

F. Has replaced Lancelot as Guinevere's Lover in the modern tradition (Sword at Sunset; Bradshaw; John M. Ford).

III. The Legends of Gawain

A. Eldest son of King Lot (B67-71; 90-91; 110-127; 165-192); leader of the Orkney/Norway Clan (Lot of Norway became the Earl of Orkney by a scribal error, and the name stuck).

1. Lot and Morgawse

2. Gawain (Walwain, etc.), Agravain, Gaheris (slide), Gareth, Mordred (Mordred not mentioned as brother of Gawain in Wace; B110-127; is brother in Geoffrey) (Wace as using Celtic source for Gawain; B357-365--Gwalchmai)

B. The Continental Campaign (Geoffrey of Monmouth B67-71; 90-91; 110-127; 165-192)

1. Flollo/Frollo, tribune of Rome (under Leo I).

2. Gawain as leader of the troops of the Round Table. (B85-88; 95-98)

3. Gawain as Champion of Chivalry (B120 [bottom]; 184 [top]; slide--perilous bed).

C. Conquest of Rome vs. Continental Campaign in Final Days of Round Table (B311-315)

1. Gawain and the treachery of Mordred (slide: Gaheris slays Morgawse)

2. Gawain and Lancelot; the fighting friends (slide: perilous cemetery)

3. The Death of Gawain (B124-125)

a. Battle against Mordred vs.

b. Single combat with Lancelot

D. The Ghost of Sir Gawain and the Dream of King Arthur (B313-315): Welsh Dream Literature vs. Visionary Literature of the Church.

E. Other Stories of Gawain

1. The Marriage of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell

2. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (slides)

3. Gawain and the Grail (Wait until Week 5!; slide)

4. Elaine of Astalot

F. Conclusion: Story of a noble, but emotional, warrior whose mindless, non- Christian vengeance destroys the Round Table.

IV. Erec and Geraint

A. Subject of first of Chrétien's romances (First mention of Lancelot).

B. Stories focus on conflicts between love and chivalry (after marriage Erec gives up fighting; blames Enid; wander together, proving selves and their love; successfully join love and chivalry). Cf. Lanval.

C. Gereint: NOT WELSH IN ORIGIN. Enid tells Gereint his court thinks he's an ineffective ruler, which Gereint takes to mean she's been unfaithful to him. Ride out together on adventure. Return to find court surrounded by hedge. Gereint solves the puzzle and breaks the enchantment. Chrétien's story or Continental source in Welsh format.

D. The Historical Erec.

V. The Legends of Tristan, Child of Sorrow

A. Most popular of all Arthurian characters (Tiles, Embroidery, Quilts, etc.)

B. The Historical Tristan

1. Drustanus of Cornwall

2. Alan Judual of Vannes

C. The Legendary Tristan, Lion of Britain (all MS versions trace to Thomas of Britain's Tristan; we've lost the other variants of his story; only the courtly love tradition survives in writing--with the possible exception of the Riddle of the Evergreen)

1. Son of a widower (slide); harpist (slide)

2. Battle with Irish Giant; poisoned wound; healing in Ireland by Iseult; discovery of identity by piece missing from sword; rescue by Irish king from being killed in bath by Queen or Iseult; return to Cornwall.

3. The Fetching of Mark's bride, Iseult

a. Discovery of Defeat of the Maurholt (slide) b. Love Potion on Boat (slide)

4. Adultery with Iseult (slide)

5. Theft of Iseult (aided by Lancelot--Joyous Guard, creator of hunting traditions in Britain)

6. Return to Iseult (The Riddle of the Evergreen)

7. The Tryst Beneath the Tree (slides)

8. Exile and Marriage to Iseult of Brittany

9. Death

a. broken heart b. slain by Mark (slide); avenged by relatives of Lancelot.

D. Tristan in Malory used as parallel to Lancelot; Round Table still strong and adultery has no power to do harm.

E. Conclusion: Story of a warrior from an ancient culture in conflict with the new, Christian culture, who dies rather than adapt to the new ways.

VI. Any one else?


Lecture: Week 2 (Version 2)

The Legends of Arthur and Lancelot

I. The Legends of Arthur

A. The Chronicles: Brief review of last week

1. Roman soldier

2. Campaigned on Continent

3. Brief mentions of some figures: e.g., Ambrosius.

B. The Common Legend

1. Merlin (prose Merlin, B215-230; slide)

a. Prophecies

b. Prime-Mover of Arthurian Stories; Tree vs. cave as site of home/imprisonment (slide)

2. Uther and Igraine (Layamon, B128; Wyld B366-374 Geoffrey of Monmouth, B43-59; Malory, B233-240; slides) as Arthur's father and mother. Story of Duke Gorlois. Morgan and Morgawse as Arthur's half-sisters.

3. Ector (aka Antor) and Kay (Cei from Culhwch [B15-43]) as Arthur's foster father and brother

4. The Sword in the Stone ("Arthur and Merlin," B155-164, especially 156; Malory B240-243; prose Merlin B215-230, especially 222; slide), the Uniting Britain, Battles (through Badon) and the Continental Campaign (Malory B 243-252; 260-276; slide)

5. The Round Table (Layamon B133-136; Malory 256-257; slide)

6. Kin of Arthur: Gawain and the Orkney Clan (Wait till next week for details!) (Morgawse and the siring of Mordred) (Layamon B137- 139; prose Merlin, B230-233; Malory B 254-255)

7. The Coming of Lancelot and the breaking of Excalibur (Will get to his details in a few minutes.) (Malory B257-258; cf. Layamon, B129)

8. The Lady of the Lake (Details in Week 4) and the second Excalibur (Malory B252-253; slide); Lady does not appear in Britain before the arrival of Lancelot, to whom she is tied. Malory is the only author to connect the Lady with Arthur.

9. Guinevere (Details in Week 4) (Malory B255-256; slide--abduction on Modena archivolt): Abductions

10. Morgan (Details in Week 4) as the court "tester." (Malory B 257- 260)

11. The Quest for the Holy Grail (Wait till Week 5 for details!).

12. The Splitting of the Round Table (Stanzaic Morte, B193-215; Wells B390-391; Malory B 276-320)

a. Lancelot and Guinevere (Wait for details)

b. The Second Continental Campaign

c. Mordred usurps the throne

d. Camlann (Layamon B139-141)

i. Arthur

ii. Mordred (and the serpent)

iii. Constantine Cadorson (Arthur's heir--Mordred never had a claim; B141)

iv. Bedwyr (Sword thrown into the Lake; slide; cf. sword thown into sea B213)

v. Queens take Arthur to Avalon (Once and Future King; slide)

vi. Lancelot (arrives too late).

C. The "Evil" Arthur (Welsh Saints' Legends--Extremely different portrait from the Continental Arthur and the Arthur of Malory).

D. The Welsh Arthur: Culhwch and Olwen (B15-43; Jones and Jones B351- 355)-- Extremely different portrait from the Continental Arthur and the Arthur of Malory.

E. Summary: The story of a man who did everything right, and his world still fell apart--through absolutely no fault of his own.

II. The Legends of Lancelot

A. Continental Origin; Popular throughout Europe; late appearance in British material.

B. Beginnings as a name on a list of Arthur's knights.

C. Chrétien's Conte de la Charrette (romance with Guinevere) vs. Ulrich von Zatzikhoven's Lanzelet (multiple wives; no romance); Romance literature vs. other tales.

D. The Standard Biography (Baugh B348-350)

1. Son of King Ban and Queen Elaine of Benwick

2. Stolen by Lady of the Lake on the night Ban dies (slide)

3. Raised at the Lake with his cousins, Bors and Lionel (slide).

4. Leaves Lake to join Round Table

5. Pre-eminent Knight of Arthur's Court.

6. Best-friend of Gawain (slide) and Galahaut

7. Finds true name on tombstone in cemetery, in the company of a woman, after having a conversation about graves with a hermit. (slides)

8. Trains other knights, among them Mordred.

9. Adultery with Guinevere

10. Hounded by Morgan Le Fey (Lancelot as Prisoner; slide)

11. Fights incognito in tournament against King of a Hundred Knights (on behalf of Bademagus in Malory).

12. Travels incognito.

13. Rescues Kay and other knights (Turquin, etc.; steals Kay's armor)

14. Wins Joyous Guard (picture; map)

15. Friend of Tristan (Wait till next week!; shelters Tristan and Isolde at Joyous Guard)

16. Quest for the Grail: The Best of all Worldly Knights (Wait till Week 5!)

17. The insane Lancelot (slide)

18. Abduction of Guinevere and the death of Gareth

19. War with Arthur and fight with Gawain (More details next week!)

20. Return to Britain, entrance into monastic life, and death (Body not recognized by half-brother, Ector de Marys).

E. Summary: The story of a man who was perfect except for the fact that he was human. In the end, he survives.

III. Similarities between Arthur and Lancelot

A. Shared Kingdom

B. Shared warband

C. Shared wife/antagonist (Morgan)

D. Shared sword/Lady of the Lake

IV. Conclusion: Arthur and Lancelot are reflections of the same heroic figure, but the legends of Arthur are skewed by the presence of the historical Riothamus.


.

Lecture: Week 3

The Legends of Gawain and Tristan

I. The Legends of Gawain

A. Eldest son of King Lot (B67-71; 90-91; 110-127; 165-192); leader of the Orkney/Norway Clan (Lot of Norway became the Earl of Orkney by a scribal error, and the name stuck).

1. Lot and Morgawse

2. Gawain (Walwain, etc.), Agravain, Gaheris (slide), Gareth, Mordred (Mordred not mentioned as brother of Gawain in Wace; B110-127; is brother in Geoffrey) (Wace as using Celtic source for Gawain; B357-365--Gwalchmai)

B. The Continental Campaign (Geoffrey of Monmouth B67-71; 90-91; 110-127; 165-192)

1. Flollo/Frollo, tribune of Rome (under Leo I).

2. Gawain as leader of the troops of the Round Table. (B85-88; 95-98)

3. Gawain as Champion of Chivalry (B120 [bottom]; 184 [top]; slide--perilous bed).

C. Conquest of Rome vs. Continental Campaign in Final Days of Round Table (B311-315)

1. Gawain and the treachery of Mordred (slide: Gaheris slays Morgawse)

2. Gawain and Lancelot; the fighting friends (slide: perilous cemetery)

3. The Death of Gawain (B124-125)

a. Battle against Mordred vs.

b. Single combat with Lancelot

D. The Ghost of Sir Gawain and the Dream of King Arthur (B313-315): Welsh Dream Literature vs. Visionary Literature of the Church.

E. Other Stories of Gawain

1. The Marriage of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell

2. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (slides)

3. Gawain and the Grail (Wait until Week 5!; slide)

4. Elaine of Astalot

F. Conclusion: Story of a noble, but emotional, warrior whose mindless, non-Christian vengeance destroys the Round Table.

II. The Legends of Tristan, Child of Sorrow

A. Most popular of all Arthurian characters (Tiles, Embroidery, Quilts, etc.)

B. The Historical Tristan

1. Drustanus of Cornwall

2. Alan Judual of Vannes

B. The Legendary Tristan, Lion of Britain (all MS versions trace to Thomas of Britain's Tristan; we've lost the other variants of his story; only the courtly love tradition survives in writing--with the possible exception of the Riddle of the Evergreen)

1. Son of a widower (slide); harpist (slide)

2. Battle with Irish Giant; poisoned wound; healing in Ireland by Iseult; discovery of identity by piece missing from sword; rescue by Irish king from being killed in bath by Queen or Iseult; return to Cornwall.

3. The Fetching of Mark's bride, Iseult

a. Discovery of Defeat of the Maurholt (slide)

b. Love Potion on Boat (slide)

4. Adultery with Iseult (slide)

5. Theft of Iseult (aided by Lancelot--Joyous Guard, creator of hunting traditions in Britain)

6. Return to Iseult (The Riddle of the Evergreen)

7. The Tryst Beneath the Tree (slides)

8. Exile and Marriage to Iseult of Brittany

9. Death

a. broken heart

b. slain by Mark (slide); avenged by relatives of Lancelot.

C. Tristan in Malory used as parallel to Lancelot; Round Table still strong and adultery has no power to do harm.

D. Conclusion: new, Christian culture, who dies rather than adapt to the new ways.


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Lecture: Week 4

The Women of the Round Table

I. Guinevere

A. Roman descent (B115-6)

B. Abductions

C. Lovers (Romance Tradition; 392-405)

D. Mordred (B309-311)

E. Abbess (B320-321)

II. Isolde/Iseult/Ysolde

III. Morgawse

A. Sister of Morgan; half-sister of Arthur

B. Mother of Gawain (et al)

C. Widow of Lot

D. Lover of Lamorak

IV. The Lady of the Lake vs. Morgan Le Fay (B375-378; 377!!) vs. Niniane/Viviane/Nimue

A. Magic Use (protective vs. destructive vs. entrapment)

Protective Magic:

tent
transforming castle (Courage/coward)
ring
spells of peace and congeniality

Destructive Magic:

Story of a warrior from an ancient culture in conflict with the cloak (acid)
false Excalibur
spells of deceit

B. Home (Otherworld vs. Castle vs. forest)

C. Gives sword vs. Takes (Steals) Sword

D. Mother of a Coward vs. Mother of Owain/Yvain vs. Virgin

V. The Wives of the Round Table

A. Elaine of Corbenic (vs. Astalot, Benwick, et al)

B. Lyonesse

C. Lyonet

D. Ragnell

E. Enide

VI. The Mothers of the Round Table: Perceval's Mother

VII. Fairy Queens

A. Launfal/Lanval

B. Avalon (B141)

C. Crones (B142-55)


.

Lecture: Week 4 (Version 2)

The Women of the Round Table

I. Guinevere

A. Roman descent (B115-6)

B. Abductions

C. Lovers (Romance Tradition; 392-405)

D. Mordred (B309-311)

E. Abbess (B320-321)

II. Isolde/Iseult/Ysolde

III. Morgawse

A. Sister of Morgan; half-sister of Arthur

B. Mother of Gawain (et al)

C. Widow of Lot

D. Lover of Lamorak

IV. The Lady of the Lake vs. Morgan Le Fay (B375-378; 377!!) vs. Niniane/Viviane/Nimue

A. Magic Use (protective vs. destructive vs. entrapment) [SEE CHART IN SCYTHIA]

Protective Magic:

tent
transforming castle (Courage/coward)
ring
spells of peace and congeniality

Destructive Magic:

cloak (acid)
false Excalibur
spells of deceit

B. Home (Otherworld vs. Castle vs. forest)

C. Gives sword vs. Takes (Steals) Sword

D. Mother of a Coward vs. Mother of Owain/Yvain vs. Virgin

V. The Wives of the Round Table

A. Elaine of Corbenic (vs. Astalot, Benwick, et al)

B. Lyonesse

C. Lyonet

D. Ragnell

E. Enide

VI. The Mothers of the Round Table: Perceval's Mother

VII. Fairy Queens

A. Launfal/Lanval

B. Avalon (B141)

C. Crones (B142-55)


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Lecture: Week 5

The Holy Grail

I. The Legend of the Grail

A. The Grail (slide)

B. The Fisher King/Maimed King (slide)

C. The Knights: Perceval (slides); Gawain (slide); Galahad (slide); Bors (slide); Lancelot (slide)

II. The Chalice at the Cross

A. The Chalice Alone

1. Utensil (Paschal dish; Chalice; slide)

a. Arthur's vision in Perlesvaus (chapel picture)

b. Queste del Saint Graal (Galahad)

c. Didot Perceval (catching blood from side, no mention of bearer).

2. Symbol (Cistercians: heavenly light; Cathars)

B. The Serpent with the Chalice (not explicit in Arthurian Tradition; slide)

1. Possibly inspired by literary symbols in the Queste del Saint Graal

2. Similar literary symbols at play in Lovelich's Grand Saint Graal

C. Adam with the Chalice (Mentioned by Arthurian critics, but not explicit in Grail texts; slide)

D. Angels with the Chalice (slides and Cotrége slide)

1. prose Lancelot, Perlesvaus (Angel with Chalice at the Cross), and Titurel

2. Estoire del Saint Graal; Grand Saint Graal; Joseph of Arimathie; Y Seint Greal (Angels with Chalice at the Cross in ark)

3. Queste del Saint Graal (Josephes reveals Grail to Knights at Round Table)

E. Female Bearers

1. Ecclesia and Synagoga: Similar to vision in chapel in Perlesvaus; possible source for Grail maidens (slides)

2. The Virtues: another possible source for Grail maidens (slide)

3. The Virgin Mary (in Crucifixion scene on frescoes seen by Gawain in Perlesvaus; but not bearing Chalice in Arthurian tradition; slide)

F. Joseph of Arimathea (Crucifixion; NOT in Malory; slide)

1. Robert de Boron, Estoire del Saint Graal, Merlin, metrical Joseph

2. Vulgate Estoire and Merlin; post-Vulgate Roman du Graal (Estoire, Merlin, Queste/Mort); Portuguese Liuro de Josep Abarmatia; Jacob van Maerlant's Historie van den Grale and Merlinjns Boeck, the Dutch Roman van Lancelot; the Alliterative Joseph of Arimathea

3. Queste del Saint Graal

4. Perlesvaus (one time only)

5. Blood from the Dead Christ (Deposition and Entombment): Didot Perceval, Queste, Grand Saint Graal, Perceval le Gallois, Mort Artu (pictures)

G. Saints

1. John the Evangelist (Eucharistic symbol)

2. Mary Magdalene (Holy Blood, Holy Grail; Conte del Graal--landing at Marseille)

3. Francis of Assisi (not in Arthurian Tradition)

4. Catherine of Alexandria (wise virgin; not in Arthurian tradition)

H. Melchizedek (Parallel to Fisher King; lives until Crucifixion; Fisher King lives until Grail Quest)

I. Donors ?

J. Anonymous Bearers: Continuations of Chr&eeacute;tien's Perceval; the Dumart le Gallois; Perlesvaus; Queste del Saint Graal (slide); Longer prose Perceval

III. Relics (mentioned in works such as Titurel).

A. Reichenau (Charlemagne)

B. Fécamp (Nicodemus)

C. Bruges (Philippe d'Alsace)

D. Glastonbury (forgery; slide)

IV. Pagan Chalices

A. Biket's Lai du Cor (B103-109; 355-356; Esparlot and Espor)

B. Chrétien's Conte del Graal

C. The Celtic Chalice: Peredur (Welsh and Irish Grail stories are late and taken from Continental sources)

1. Late "Grail" story showing influence from Continent

2. The Celtic Cauldron

3. Did not supply Joseph variant

D. The Alans and the Grail (cleric/missionaries and soldiers; B 356, Mangon)

V. Wolfram

A. Stone

B. Fisher King/Sinning King (pêcheur and pécheur)

C. Lohengrin, the Swan Knight (slide)

VI. The Moral Collapse of the Round Table


.

Lecture: Week 6

Conclusion: The Tradition Today

I. Books

A. The Classical King Arthur (Malory; Mabinogion; Parzival; Geoffrey of Monmouth; Mort Artu; Queste; Sir Gawain and the Green Knight)

1. Tennyson: Idylls of the King

2. Mark Twain: A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (Time travel; early science fiction)

3. T.H. White: The Once and Future King

B. The Historical King Arthur

1. Mary Stewart: The Crystal Cave (Merlin as Narrator), The Hollow Hills, The Last Enchantment, The Wicked Day (Mordred as Narrator)

2. Parke Godwin: Firelord, Beloved Exile, The Last Rainbow

3. John Jakes and Gil Kane, Excalibur

C. The Adaptable King Arthur

1. Marion Zimmer Bradley: The Mists of Avalon (Morgan as Narrator)

2. Catherine Christian: The Pendragon (Bedivere as Narrator; harp music as structure)

3. Barbara Ferry Johnson: Lionors: King Arthur's Uncrowned Queen (Minor Character as Narrator: daughter of the Earl of Sanam)

4. Sharan Neuman, Guinevere Trilogy

5. Phyllis Ann Karr: The Idylls of the Queen (Kay as Sherlock Holmes)

6. Thomas Berger: Arthur Rex (satire; humor)

7. Philip Michaels: Grail (Horror)

8. Fred Saberhagen: Dominion (King Arthur meets Dracula)

9. Gillian Bradshaw: Hawk of May, etc.

D. Science Fiction and King Arthur

1. C.S. Lewis: Out of the Silent Planet, Perlanda, That Hideous Strength

2. C.J. Cherryh: Port Eternity (androids and Tennyson)

3. Roger Zelazny: The Last Defender of Camelot (The New Twilight Zone)

E. The Obscene King Arthur

1. Robert Nye: A Very Adult Fantasy: Merlin

2. Nicholas Seare: Rude Tales and Glorious

F. Children's (Excalibat)

II. Plays

A. Camelot

1. Broadway

2. Canada, Pepperdine, Community Theaters

a. Changing script

b. JFK--The "Camelot" administration

B. Once and Future

C. Merlin's Magical Misadventures

III. Films

A. Camelot

B. Knights of the Round Table

C. Excalibur

D. Monty Python and the Holy Grail

E. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court

1. Bing Crosby

2. Cartoon

3. Unidentified Flying Oddballs

F. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade

G. Knightriders (Morgan as a Man)

H. Disney's The Sword in the Stone

I. Sword of the Valiant

J. King Arthur, the Young Warlord (and other foreign films)

K. Lancelot and Guinevere (1963; Cornel Wilde; Jean Wallace)

L. Prince Valiant (1954; Robert Wagner uncovers plot to overthrow Arthur)

M. Siege of the Saxons (1963; Ronald Lewis; Janette Scott: Kate, King Arthur's daughter eventually takes a hero as her consort after he saves her from numerous situations, including usurpers).

N. The Fisher King

IV. Comic Books

A. Camelot 3000 (Tristan as a Woman)

B. French comics

C. "Guest" appearances (Iron Man, etc.)

V. Roll-Playing Games

A. Knights of Camelot

B. Pendragon (King Arthur Companion; Phyllis Ann Karr of Idylls of the Queen fame).

VI. Music

A. Opera

B. Musicals

C. Film scores

VII. And Much More!

A. Journals

1. Avalon to Camelot

2. Arthurian Bibliography

B. Art Exhibits.

C. Cards, Wallet and other Art

D. Book of Days and other Calendars

E. Knights of the Turn Table (D.Js. at Wedding)

F. Societies (SCA)

G. Other Ventures

1. Medieval Times

2. Excalibur Hotel

3. Excalibur (the car!)

4. Round Table Pizza

5. Camelot Jewelers

VIII. Critics

IX. Conclusion: The Real King Arthur is the Arthur of the Legends: "Let it not be forgot that once there was a spot, for one brief shining moment, that was known as Camelot!"


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